The fundamental revolutions in power technology-the technology of the production of motive machines by machines-thus appears as the determinant moment in revolutions of technology as a whole. Machine production of steam-driven motors since 1848; machine production of electric and combustion motors since the 90s of the 19th century; machine production of electronic and nuclear-powered apparatuses since the 40s of the 20th century--these are the three general revolutions in technology engendered by the capitalist mode of production since the "original" industrial revolution of the later 18th century.I like Mandel's insight (and where Jameson took it), but perhaps because I am not looking to cap modernism, naming its final period, but instead am looking to identify the meaning of stylistic stratum - "fundamental revolutions" are little help. In fact, I think they obscure more important changes, the changes in the hopes moderns have for their futures.
The first age is one that was not a part of the original talk. Because the skyscraper included tall buildings, made with technologies not too different from cathedrals, and because an important part of the modern world are its connections to the past, to the "folk art" and such of the not-yet-modernized. This is the world the Jawas and Tusken Raiders.
2001 premiered April 2nd 1968, two months after the American military’s disastrous response to the Tet Offensive; one month after Walter Cronkite (who was recently described as “a reliable mouthpiece for the optimistic scenarios” of the US government) changed his position and broadcast an editorial predicting the war could only end in stalemate or “cosmic disaster.
Two days after 2001 made its premier to an audience of Washington DC beltway insiders, Martin Luther King was assassinated on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis Tennessee. The national mood that Kubrick had projected 33 years into the future had broken like a fever by April 13th 1968, just days after the film premiered, when the New Yorker Magazine published Penelope Gilliatt's review of 2001, in which she wrote:
There are no Negroes in this vision of America's space program; conversation with Russian scientists is brittle with mannerly terror, and the Chinese can still be dealt with only by pretending they're not there.In the first few weeks of 2001’s run riots broke out in over 110 American cities. In DC alone, 13 people were killed in clashes with police and over 6000 arrests were made. By the time Lucas began work on Star Wars five years later the Kent State shootings in 1970 had further polarized and radicalized Americans. The OPEC nations had challenged the US presumption of superpower in 1973 with a successful oil embargo, Richard Nixon resigned in scandal on August 9, 1974 , and the capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975 marked the end of the Vietnam war.
I started to work on Star Wars rather than continue on Apocalypse Now. I had worked on Apocalypse Now for about four years and I had very strong feelings about it. I wanted to do but could not get it off the ground... A lot of my interest in Apocalypse Now was carried over into Star Wars. I figured I couldn't make that film because it was about the Vietnam War, so I would essentially deal with some of the same interesting concepts that I was going to use and convert them into space fantasy, so you'd have essentially a large technological empire going after a small group of freedom fighters or human beings... a small independent country like North Vietnam threatened by a neighbor or provincial rebellion, instigated by gangsters aided by empire... The empire is like America ten years from now, after Nixonian gangsters assassinated the Emperor and were elevated to power in a rigged election; created civil disorder by instigating race riots aiding rebel groups and allowing the crime rate to rise to the point where a 'total control' police state was welcomed by the people. Then the people were exploited with high taxes, utility and transport costs"Used Future